Monday, March 30, 2009

Dulany & Baltimore - A Turning Point 1732

Daniel Dulany’s life changed in the 1730s. Up to this point, his primary focus was on his law practice with particular attention paid to the politics of maintaining a strong representation for the tobacco farmers or “Country Gentry”. Because of his large holdings and great gain from his own farms, it made sense that Daniel would be very active in directing the path of lawmakers in favor of this political class. Up to this point, Daniel was relatively well liked in Maryland.

In 1731, Samuel Ogle landed in Annapolis. He had been sent by Lord Baltimore to survey the landscape and to determine what would have to be done to “set things right”. According to Aubrey Land, Ogle sent confidential reports back to Lord Baltimore one of which named Dulany and Bodeley as men who were capable of doing Lord Baltimore either a great deal of good or a great deal of harm.

Charles Calvert, Daniel’s friend, notified Daniel of plans by Lord Baltimore to return to Annapolis in the fall of 1732. At some time during the festivities of Baltimore’ visit, possibly during meetings in the counsel chamber or in the corner during a party, Dulany and Baltimore came to an agreement. “They exchanged views, and proposals were made and accepted,” according to Land. The understanding between them committed the families of both to a course interrupted only by the great Revolution, still forty years in the future.”

The visit from Lord Baltimore and the plans he put into place changed the course of Daniel Dulany’s life and the lives of his descendents forever. It is understandable that some might call the later confiscation of the Dulany holdings an “appropriate action” considering Dulany loyalty to the Crown; however, it is interesting to note that Dulany never raised a hand to a revolutionary soldier or did anything to harm the revolution. It appears that his belief that the colonies should hold fast to England’s support could have come from his understanding that without a major power at her side, the USA would be in grave danger of invasion or could not support itself at this early stage in its existence. His experience in Ireland would have greatly influenced this belief since Ireland had, for years, attempted to obtain independence with little success. It is very possible that in addition to Daniel’s concern for his own assets, he felt that the colonies were not sufficiently strengthened to maintain a lasting government.

Obviously he was wrong if he did believe this to be true; nonetheless, his great wealth vaporized as the colonies won their independence. His family, after this point, is very difficult to track. As Don Dulaney points out, “It is easy to understand why our family line is so confusing, those were very confusing times for everyone.” I could not say it better myself.

Wednesday, March 18, 2009

Daniel's Daughters, a Father's Delight

Daniel Dulany’s children are an interesting study. Of course, I found the stories of the three boys very interesting at first. Daniel the younger was destined to follow in his father’s footsteps as an attorney as most of us know. Walter, the second son, was seemingly expected to take up his fathers business in merchandising and industrial interests due to his “practical” mindset. Dennis, however, is described in Aubrey C. Land’s book “The Dulaney’s of Maryland” as somewhat of a problem. He was high-spirited and sensitive. During this time period it was English tradition that he should have had a military career, been a farmer, or become a sailor. In all three of these young men, I can see the same traits as in many of the Dulaney men of today, especially in Dennis. High-spirited and emotional would be words I would use to describe most of the Dulaney men I know to include myself.

The three daughters of Daniel Dulany the elder, Rebecca, Rachel, and Margaret, were faced with few choices when looking to their future. Marriage and spinsterhood, (spinning thread or becoming an old maid) were the two most prominent choices. The girls spent time at home learning domestic virtues and the Dulany library was stocked with books well adapted to the correct upbringing of young ladies. Besides the weighty volumes of law and political philosophy, the family had acquired a representative collection of belles letters, the popular devotional literature, and courtesy books. Books like “Immortality of the Soul,” “Future Judgment,” “The Lady’s Calling,” and “The Government of the Tongue” were just a few of the books available to them.

This information and more was taken from Mr. Land’s book; however, in the few pages dedicated to the girls, one can detect a character in them that would seem to be contrary to what we would consider a “domestic” lady. It is stated that none of the girls were “bookish” and all three found delight in people and further possessed an infectious gaiety that charmed men and women of all ages. Simply put, it sounds as if the girls were as fiery and witty as the boys. And, as with the boys, I can see these traits in many of the Dulaney women I know today. I venture to say that if Rebecca, Rachel, and Margaret were alive in our society today, in addition to being well educated and a social force, we might well hear tales of their riding a whitewater rapid, conquering a skycoaster, touring Europe, or playing a challenging sport.

The Dulany girls are said to have taken part in the “exciting sport of surveying the eligible bachelors among the squires” in and around Annapolis Maryland. I can say firsthand that this is indeed a sport. As I have watched my own three daughters in recent months, I have come to believe that this must be a genetic trait passed down through the many generations of Dulaney women. My word, what would Daniel’s daughters have been able to do with a tool like Facebook or Myspace?

Monday, March 16, 2009

Thursday, March 12, 2009

What's in a "Trillion"

Jesse Hamby, Don Dulaney and I have been doing a little math. Now we are all Southerners and proud of it but some might question our math skills. I challenge you to correct me here. If you do, I might feel better and sleep tonight.

It is estimated that the USA is going borrow and spend 2.5 trillion dollars in 2009. If that is true, let’s do some math.

$2,500,000,000,000 (2.5 trillion)
divided by $1,000,000.00 (1 million)
divided by 365 (1 year)

This comes to 6,845.31

What is in a trillion? If Adam and Eve was given 2.5 trillion dollars by God in the garden of Eden on DAY ONE, and God told them to give away one million dollars per day and they did so until March of 2009, Adam and Eve would have around 845 MILLION dollars left over!

Don points this out: There are roughly 303,000,000 people in the USA. That is breathing human beings, not just income earners. Dividing 2.5 trillion by that number means that the stimulus package will cost each American roughly $8000 in 2009. For my family, that means for me, my wife, and four kids, we will be putting $48,000 into this deal.

I think I could use that money much more wisely than the government. But hey, that’s just me.

Monday, March 9, 2009

Daniel Dulany's two wives

For those who are interested, here is a quick fact I recently found in "The Dulanys of Maryland" by Aubrey Land.

Daniel Dulany the elder had two wives. When he was 26 years of age, he married the daughter of a wealthy Charles County Maryland planter, Charity Courts. Charity Courts had previously been married for only a few months to Bayne Smallwood before he died. Probably in early 1711, Charity became Charity Courts Dulany. Unfortunately, she too passed away in late 1711.

Two years after Charity's death, Daniel Dulany married Rebecca Smith of Calvert County Maryland; however, the exact date of the marriage is unknown. Rebecca was the youngest daughter of Colonel Walter Smith, a justice of the Calvert County Court. Rebecca was Daniel the younger's mother.

On June 28th, 1722, Daniel Dulany the younger was born. Coincidentally, this was the same day Bladen Tasker was born, son of Benjamin and Anne Tasker. Both Daniel and Bladen were christened at St. Anne's Parish within three weeks of each other.

Friday, March 6, 2009

Tuscarora Glass

While doing research on Daniel Dulany the younger, I happened across this bit of information which sheds a little light on the Dulany/Tasker family investments and holdings in Maryland. This, of course, is in addition to the many other holdings and interests to include tobacco farming. Ken Dulaney

From the book "In and out of Frederick Town: colonial occupations", authored by Amy Reed on microfiche [6088329] LDS church, 975.288 H2, I have excerpted sections from the chapter on Glass Manufactories-Ken Engle.

The earliest glassworker whose records have been found in the Frederick Town area were Jacob Frederick Dannwolf, a glassblower, and Peter Engel, a glass cutter. The presence of just two glass artisans suggests that theirs may have been a small, village-type window glass industry requiring only one glassblower, a cutter to maker window lights from the large disk of glass and one or two helpers. Frederick Town's steady growth certainly would have provided a market for window glass. The fact that John Shellman had glass window lights in his house in 1759 could be indicative that glass was available locally, perhaps Just across the street.

Jacob Frederick Dannwolf acquired an East Patrick Street lot across from Shellman's house, in 1762, but he could have been a tenant before receiving a deed. It is interesting that Dannwolf's lot was one of the few owned by Walter Dulany in Frederick Town. Could Walter, an Annapolis merchant, have recruited the two glassworkers on a profit sharing arrangement similar to Wistar's? (In 1764, Peter Engels Sr. acquired lot #100 for one penny from Daniel Delaney. The low amount suggests Peter did have a business relationship with Delaney.) This may be the explanation for Dannwolf and Engel coming into the Maryland back country. There is, however, another possibility to be considered.

The Varle Map of 1808 shows an "Old glass-works" along Tuscacora Creek about three miles north of Frederick Town. Recent archaeological testing at the Tuscacora site reveals a dry-laid limestone foundation that suggests a long, narrow building, possibly part of an early glass works. In addition to the foundation, archaeologists discovered a high density of glass fragments, slag, glazed brick, and limestone slabs. The excavation site was part of "Tasker's Chance" that Benjamin Tasker transferred to Daniel Dulany, the immigrant, in 1744. The tenant on the land at the time of transfer was John Conrad Keller. Little is known of Conrad Keller who was consistently recorded as a farmer in Frederick County land records. Though he bought several other tracts of land during his lifetime, Keller never owned the glasshouse land on which he lived. The Dulany family held that tract from 1744 until it was seized in the confiscation proceedings during the American Revolution.

Why did three generations of Dulanys retain ownership of a relatively small piece of Tuscarora land while they were actively promoting the sale of their western Maryland land holdings? The only reasonable explanation seems to be an industry on the Tuscarora land that had proven to be a good investment. Given the Dulany involvement in the Baltimore Iron Works and the local partnership between Daniel Dulany, the immigrant, and Major John Bradford for locating and surveying unclaimed western land, the possibility of a glasshouse partnership cannot be overlooked as an inducement for Dannwolf and Engel to come into the Frederick Town area.

Though the workplace of Dannwolf and Engel is not certain, both men spent the remaining years of their lives in Frederick County. Jacob Frederick Dannwolf died of convulsions in 1771, at the age of forty-three. Many glassblowers died at an earlier age than the general population due to the rigors of blowing glass. Convulsions and strokes were common causes of death.

Dannwolf was survived by his wife, Ann, and a daughter, Anna Maria. Christian Kreiss, a glassworker, married Anna Maria, but both of then died within a few years of their marriage. Ann Dannwolf cared for their infant son, and in her will she appointed Christian Steiner as guardian for young Frederick Kreiss. The Frederick Town blacksmith taught his trade to Frederick, and they worked together until Steiner's death. Soon afterward, in 1806, Frederick divided and sold the Dannwolf lot on East Patrick Street, one half to Valentine Motter and the other part to Elizabeth Birely. Frederick Kreiss then left the county, and there is evidence that he settled in Ohio.

The Tuscarora glass-works

It is impossible at this time to assign a founding date to the Tuscarora glass-works because no records from the manufactory have been found. The bottles of Monocacy ale in the 1753 inventory of Daniel Dulany, the immigrant would be significant if their origin could, be traced to this glasshouse. According to local history, colored bottles and bottle fragments were found on the site in the late years of the nineteenth century. There is no certainty, however, that these were blown as early as 1753.

Entries in Joseph Doll's ledger, beginning December, 1771, (Joseph Doll was a famous furniture maker in Frederick and a Captain in the War.) indicate that the glasshouse was part of a small industrial complex that included a sawmill, a charcoal pit and coal house, a malt hill, and possibly a brewery. Though Doll had no bookkeeping or management responsibilities for the glasshouse, his records of the other industries and the farm have provided information relating to the Tuscarora glasshouse in the 1770's.

Among the earliest accounts in the ledger are those for Philip and Jacob Hain who purchased lumber from the sawmill. Philip paid his bill with a "sou from the vandue", a sow from the public sale, a vendue. Misspelled words in some ledger entries occurred because Doll kept his records in English, but his first language was German. Jacob Hain settled his account at the sawmill with cash, an indication that he worked for wages. Independent farmers and artisans usually paid their bill, with commodities. The name Jacob Hane is listed with other New Brennan glassworkers in the 1790 census. Although Amelung brought a number of glassworkers with him, he also employed some from glasshouses in Frederick County. It is possible that Jacob Hain was a Tuscarora glass artisan who went to New Bremen.

Entries in Joseph Doll's ledger indicate that glass window lights sold for nine Pence each in 1774. Twelve individual lights for just one window would have cost nine Shillings, a price equivalent to Esther Planck's wages for six days work hoeing corn. But even at that price, local glass was less expensive than glass imported from England. There are no records for the sale of glass bottles during the 1770's. If bottles were blown at Tuscarora, either the sales were handled by the glassworkers, or the entire production was required for bottling malt liquors made at the glasshouse complex.

The Tuscarora glasshouse land was confiscated with the Frederick County land holdings of Daniel Dulany, the third. The tract was sold to Henry Sinn in 1784 and transferred to Governor Thomas Johnson in 1787. The glass works may have remained in operation under the ownership of Sinn or the Johnsons, but there is no evidence that they built a glasshouse on the site. Governor Johnson offered 800 acres of Tuscarora land for sale in 1793, just six years after he had acquired the property. The glasshouse, a sawmill, a tanning yard, and a grist mill were included in the advertisement. The 1798 tax record shows that the glasshouse was "out of repair" when William Goldsborough bought the land in 1801.

The Johnson glasshouse on Bush Creek was not a colonial manufactory and therefore, a complete investigation of this glass works was not undertaken. However, in the interest of historical accuracy, the following information is given.

The Dennis Griffith Map (1794) shows the Tuscarora glass-works as "Aetna," but at that time, the name Aetna belonged to the Johnson glasshouse farm on Bush Creek, southeast of Frederick Town. This glass-works is not shown on the Griffith map. The Aetna glass-works was first operated by Thomas Johnson, Jr. and his cousin Benjamin, the son of the governor's brother who resided in Calvert County. The children of Benjamin Johnson had come to Frederick County to live with their uncles after their mother's death. Young Benjamin made his home with Governor Thomas Johnson's family.

When Thomas Johnson Jr. went to Baltimore about 1795, his younger brother Joshua became Benjamin's partner in the glass-works on Bush Creek. The cousins operated the glasshouse from late the nineteenth century. At Benjamin's death, the property went to Joshua Johnson.

Daniel Dulany the younger

Excerpts from "Maryland Historical Magazine"

On August 25, 1781, Daniel Dulany's real and personal property, consisting in part of ten lots in the City of Annapolis, upon one of which stood a " commodious and finely situated house in which Mr. Tasker formerly lived, with other buildings," was sold under the Confiscation Act.

And on October 10, 1781, " a number of lots in Frederick Town, with the improvements thereon; also several tracts, containing about seven thousand (7,000) acres of very valuable land, lying contiguous to the said Town, most of which is improved," were sold under the Confiscation Act.

And also on December 7, 1781, at Baltimore Town, " that elegant and well improved seat, called Hunting Ridge," was sold under the said Confiscation Act.16

All of the above property sold for £84,602, " the estates of a man who had never breathed an unfriendly breath and had never raised his hand in one overt act."

In the fall of 1781 the Dulanys removed from " Hunting Ridge " to Baltimore. Mr. Dulany did not actively engage in the practice of the law after his removal to Baltimore, but on account of his great eminence in his profession he was constantly consulted by other lawyers in the preparation of their cases.

From Baltimore, Ann Dulany dates the rest of her letters to her relative, in one of which in 1782 she shows the kindness of her heart by her sympathy for Mrs. Washington in the loss of her son. She writes: " I am very sorry for the death of Mr. Custis, but much more so for the sufferings of poor Mrs. Washington. (Note: He was the adopted son of George Washington after the death of his parents. He built Arlington House as a tribute to, and to hold the belongings of, General George Washington.)

Daniel Dulany, the younger, married September 16, 1749, Rebecca Tasker, born in Annapolis, November 4, 1724," died in Brighton, Sussex, England, in September, 1822, having nearly completed her 98th year.18 She was the second daughter of Hon. Benjamin Tasker, for 32 years a member of the Council and Acting Governor of the Province from May 3, 1752, to August 10, 1753, and Ann Bladen, his wife, the only daughter of Hon. William Bladen, of Annapolis, who was the son of Nathaniel Bladen, barrister, Hemsworth, Yorkshire, England, and Isabella Fairfax, his wife, second daughter of Sir William Fairfax of Steeton, Yorkshire, and his wife, Frances, daughter of Edmund Lord Sheffield, Earl of Mul- grave. Sir William Fairfax commanded a brigade at the battle of Marston Moor, under his cousin, Sir Thomas Fairfax, the great Parliamentary General. He fell covered with wounds in the moment of victory at the siege of Montgomery Castle, Wales, September 19, 1644.19

The children of Daniel Dulany, the younger, and Rebecca (Tasker) Dulany, his wife, were:

1. Daniel Dulany, Jr., born in Annapolis in 1750, died unmarried, in Downing Street, Westminster, August 12, 1824.f°

2. Benjamin Tasker Dulany, born in Annapolis in 1752, died 1816; married February 10, 1773, Elizabeth French of Virginia, leaving many descendants.

3. Ann Dulany, born in Annapolis, married M. de la Serre, and died at Grand Parade, Brighthelmstone (now Brighton), October 2, 1828.21 Her only child, Rebecca Ann, the heiress of her uncle, Daniel Dulany, Jr., assumed the name of Dulany and married Sir Richard Hunter, and died, without issue, at Brighton, Sussex, England.

"St. Anne's Parish Register. Annapolis. M Gentleman's Magazine, London, Vol. 92, Part 2, p. 286. "Pedigree of Yorkshire Families (Fairfax Chart), Vol. 1, West Riding. By Joseph Foster, 1874. <'' i

" Gentleman's Magasrine, London, Vol. 94, Part 2, p. 189.

Daniel Dulany, Jr., the eldest son, was taken to England by his father in July, 1761, and was educated at Eton. He never returned to America but once after he was taken abroad to be educated, and that was in 1785, when he paid a visit to his family. General Washington in his diary thus writes : " Thursday, December 22, 1785, at Mount Vernon, went a fox hunting with the following gentlemen who came here yesterday, Daniel Dulany, Jr., Benjamin Dulany, Samuel Harrison, Thomas Harrison, Philip Alexander, together with Ferdinando Fairfax and a Mr. Shaw."

Thursday, March 5, 2009

The Dulanys of Maryland

My brother, Don Dulaney, is working very hard to organize and define the Dulaney family tree in our line back to the oldest known Dulaney/Dulanys. His research has taken him in so many directions that I can't begin to make sense of it all. He, Mona Robinson Mills and Mike Mills have worked very hard over the past years and have compiled an astonishing amount of data.

He recently asked me to start at the "other end" of our family line and place into this blog my findings. He loaned me a book titled "The Dulanys of Maryland" by Aubrey C. Land. This book is the joint biography of Daniel Dulany the elder and his son Daniel Dulany of Maryland.

Upon opening the book and glancing over the first few pages, it occurred to me just how expansive these postings may become. With that in mind, I ask for your patience. The vast majority of what I place here will be direct quotes from the book simply because I cannot begin to do Mr. Land justice by putting what I read into my own words. I am in awe of the detailed research that was conducted in the writing of this book.

In the spring of 1703, the three sons of Thomas Dulany; William, Joseph and Daniel arrived in Maryland. Thomas Dulany had raised his sons in the lush meadows and bog lands of Queen's County, Ireland. According to Mr. Land, they were settled principally in the Baronies of Ossory, Upp Osssory, and Maryborough. It is reported that a great number of Dulanys, Dulaneys, Delaneys, resided in and around Kilkenny Ireland and to this day, if you zoom in with Google Earth on your computer, you can scan around and find Dulany land just north of Kilkenny and elsewhere.

According to Mr. Land, the family was a social and political force in Queen's County, and is very ancient. He states, "Peat fires had warmed Dulaney hearthstones since the twelfth century, when Felix O'Dullany flourished as Bishop of Ossory. In Queen's County, in the poverty of an Ireland defeated and ravaged by Cromwell's Ironsides, Daniel Dulany was born in 1685."

"Thomas Dulany had few resources but still he raised his sons in a tradition of letters. Daniel began his formal study at the University of Dublin with the slender means that his father could supply. There he enjoyed the friendship of a lively cousin, Patrick, who later became a distinguished doctor of divinity and a crony of Jonathan Swift."

Jonathan Swift was a key player in Irish history. It is important to note that a large portion of the book "Ireland, A Concise History..." is dedicated to the activities of Mr. Swift.

If it is in any way possible, I hope to find the name of Thomas Dulany's father, but for now, I will attempt to place into this blog the points that I think are most interesting in the tale of the first two known Dulanys to reach the American Colonies, Daniel the elder and his son Daniel Dulany.

I find it very interesting that our family, among others, have been in what we call the United States for over 306 years as of last month, February 2009.

Monday, March 2, 2009

Above all, fear God... and then thank Him to be Irish

It is my understanding or belief that my family on my father’s side came from Ireland in the early to mid 1700’s. Now it might be disputed by some who might care to dispute it for the sake of dispute, but I am happy to believe it and proud of it.

I don’t remember, as a youngster, it ever coming up or being discussed but I have always been curious about from where my ancestors came. I remember grandpa Dulaney owning a book that supposedly mapped out our lineage to some degree. As I remember, someone sold it to him. Some in the family have questioned whether or not it held any factual information; nonetheless, I remember being very proud of the fact that my grandpa had that book. For some reason it made me feel that I came from “somewhere” and that “somewhere” was Ireland.

Grandpa Dulaney was a “tough old coot”, or at least that is what I recall. He never had much time for small talk that I can remember unless it was at Doice’s, but he sure seemed proud of that book and I was glad to see him happy about something.

I recently read another book on Irish history by Paul Johnson titled “Ireland, A Concise History from Twelfth Century to the Present Day”. This is a good little book, not so much for the gripping story but for the simple history it presents. The Irish people have been oppressed from their very beginning, that much is clear. It depends on with whom you are talking as to who was at fault for this oppression. As I understand it, the main character playing the part of “villain” in the Irish story is England. Whether or not this is true can be debated; however, England has ruled Ireland in some form or fashion for centuries.

Now I don’t know all the facts and I am sure there are those who would hang me for saying so but I gather from my studies that two things played an enormous part in the Irish never obtaining complete sovereignty.

The first is that the island is positioned is such a way that makes it nearly impossible to defend with its own resources. Without a major power at her side, Ireland cannot stand on her own, at least not yet. Therefore, since Ireland was placed in such a way that created a natural barrier for England, it made complete sense for England to secure the land. If you know anything of Irish history you know that “securing Ireland” for England was much easier said than done.

The second contributor to Ireland’s lack of true sovereignty was the Irish people themselves. Please don’t misunderstand my statement. The Irish are a strong, proud and good people; however, they don’t like to be ruled. Throughout history many a monarch found this out the hard way. The Irish have been painted as, among other things, “scrappers”, and rightfully so. In times past, if you were going to war, you better hope the Irish were on your side. The hard-headed, ill tempered, little buggars would climb up the very largest of men at the drop of a hat. The very nature of the Irish has caused them great trouble throughout history simply because they wanted to be free, yet lacked the means to obtain freedom.

It is said that Ireland had over 150 kings between the fifth and twelfth centuries when the island was inhabited by no more than 500,000 people. In my mind it is a sorrowful thing to know that such a great people could never agree upon a system that would provide security and comfort for all. I suppose today Ireland is closer than it has ever been to freedom but what freedom she enjoys has come at a very great price.

So when someone talks to me about the trials and tribulations of their forefathers, I can’t help but think of the Irish. They are a people who were among the first slaves, the first hunted, the first sold, and first trampled upon. As late as the 1960’s the Irish were described in an American newspaper as “almost white”. Knowing this gives me a new respect for all who have been “less than white”, but it does not give me the right to demand anything of anyone.

I am proud of the Irish. I may never set foot on Irish soil but my heart is there on those quiet days in the spring when everything is green. It is an honor to be Irish and to be able to appreciate the sacrifices that have been made by such a great people. I hope to share some Irish history with those who care to read my posts. If you are so inclined, I invite you back soon and ask you to share your thoughts on whatever you read.

Until then, I will be researching the term “roundheads”. I think you will find it interesting what this term means and from where it comes. Here is a hint…."Cromwell".